A computer networking, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.

SWEET: Serving the Web by Exploiting Email Tunnels

Introduction :

Open communications over the Internet pose serious threats to countries with repressive regimes, leading them to develop and deploy censorship mechanisms within their networks. Unfortunately, existing censorship circumvention systems do not provide high availability guarantees to their users, as censors can easily identify, hence disrupt, the traffic belonging to these systems using today’s advanced censorship technologies. In this paper, we propose Serving the Web by Exploiting Email Tunnels (SWEET), a highly available censorship-resistant infrastructure. SWEET works by encapsulating a censored user’s traffic inside email messages that are carried over public email services like Gmail and Yahoo Mail. As the operation of SWEET is not bound to any specific email provider, we argue that a censor will need to block email communications all together in order to disrupt SWEET, which is unlikely as email constitutes an important part of today’s Internet. Through experiments with a prototype of our system, we find that SWEET’s performance is sufficient for Web browsing. In particular, regular Websites are downloaded within couple of seconds.

Reference IEEE paper :

“SWEET: Serving the Web by Exploiting Email Tunnels”, IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING, 2017.

Unique ID – SBI1059

Domain – NETWORKING

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Routing in Accumulative Multi-Hop Networks

Introduction :

This paper investigates the problem of finding optimal paths in single-source single-destination accumulative multi-hop networks. We consider a single source that communicates to a single destination assisted by several relays through multiple hops. At each hop, only one node transmits, while all the other nodes receive the transmitted signal, and store it after processing/decoding and mixing it with the signals received in previous hops. That is, we consider that terminals make use of advanced energy accumulation transmission/reception techniques, such as maximal ratio combining reception of repetition codes, or information accumulation with rate less codes. Accumulative techniques increase communication reliability, reduce energy consumption, and decrease latency. We investigate the properties that a routing metric must satisfy in these accumulative networks to guarantee that optimal paths can be computed with Dijkstra’s algorithm. We model the problem of routing in accumulative multi-hop networks, as the problem of routing in a hyper graph. We show that optimality properties in a traditional multi-hop network (monotonicity and isotonicity) are no longer useful and derive a new set of sufficient conditions for optimality. We illustrate these results by studying the minimum energy routing problem in static accumulative multi-hop networks for different forwarding strategies at relays.

Reference IEEE paper :

“Routing in Accumulative Multi-Hop Networks”, IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING, 2017.

Unique ID -SBI1058

DomainNETWORKING

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Privacy and Integrity Preserving Top-k Query Processing for Two Tiered Sensor Networks

Introduction :

Privacy and integrity have been the main road block to the applications of two-tiered sensor networks. The storage nodes, which act as a middle tier between the sensors and the sink, could be compromised and allow attackers to learn sensitive data and manipulate query results. Prior schemes on secure query processing are weak, because they reveal non-negligible information, and therefore, attackers can statistically estimate the data values using domain knowledge and the history of query results. In this paper, we propose the first top-k query processing scheme that protects the privacy of sensor data and the integrity of query results. To preserve privacy, we build an index for each sensor collected data item using pseudo-random hash function and Bloom filters and transform top-k queries into top range queries. To preserve integrity, we propose a data partition algorithm to partition each data item into an interval and attach the partition information with the data. The attached information ensures that the sink can verify the integrity of query results. We formally prove that our scheme is secure under IND-CKA security model. Our experimental results on real-life data show that our approach is accurate and practical for large network sizes.

Reference IEEE paper :

“Privacy and Integrity Preserving Top-k Query Processing for Two Tiered Sensor Networks”, IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING, 2017.

Unique ID – SBI1057

DomainNETWORKING

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Network Capability in Localizing Node Failures via End-to-End Path Measurements

Introduction :

We investigate the capability of localizing node failures in communication networks from binary states (normal/failed) of end-to-end paths. Given a set of nodes of interest, uniquely localizing failures within this set requires that different observable path states associate with different node failure events. However, this condition is difficult to test on large networks due to

the need to enumerate all possible node failures. Our first contribution is a set of sufficient/necessary conditions for identifying a bounded number of failures within an arbitrary node set that can be tested in polynomial time. In addition to network topology and locations of monitors, our conditions also incorporate constraints imposed by the probing mechanism used. We consider three probing mechanisms that differ according to whether measurement paths are: (i) arbitrarily controllable; (ii) controllable but cycle-free; or (iii) uncontrollable (determined by the default routing protocol). Our second contribution is to quantify the capability of failure localization through: 1) the maximum number of failures (anywhere in the network) such that failures within a given node set can be uniquely localized and 2) the largest node set within which failures can be uniquely localized under a given bound on the total number of failures. Both measures in 1) and 2) can be converted into the functions of a per-node property, which can be computed efficiently based on the above sufficient/necessary conditions. We demonstrate how measures 1) and 2) proposed for quantifying failure localization capability can be used to evaluate the impact of various parameters, including topology, number of monitors, and probing mechanisms.

Reference IEEE paper :

“Network Capability in Localizing Node Failures via End-to-End Path Measurements”, IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING, 2017.

Unique ID -SBI1056

DomainNETWORKING

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FaceChange: Attaining Neighbour Node Anonymity in Mobile Opportunistic Social Networks With Fine-Grained Control

Introduction :

In mobile opportunistic social networks (MOSNs), mobile devices carried by people communicate with each other directly when they meet for proximity-based MOSN services (e.g., file sharing) without the support of infrastructures. In current methods, when nodes meet, they simply communicate with their real IDs, which leads to privacy and security concerns. Anonymizing real IDs among neighbour nodes solves such concerns. However, this prevents nodes from collecting real ID-based encountering information, which is needed to support MOSN services. Therefore, in this paper, we propose FaceChange that can support both anonymizing real IDs among neighbour nodes and collecting real ID-based encountering information. For node anonymity, two encountering nodes communicate anonymously. Only when the two nodes disconnect with each other, each node forwards an encrypted encountering evidence to the encountered node to enable encountering information collection. A set of novel schemes are designed to ensure the confidentiality and uniqueness of encountering evidences. FaceChange also supports fine-grained control over what information is shared with the encountered node based on attribute similarity (i.e., trust), which is calculated without disclosing attributes. Advanced extensions for sharing real IDs between mutually trusted nodes and more efficient encountering evidence collection are also proposed. Extensive analysis and experiments show the effectiveness of FaceChange on protecting node privacy and meanwhile supporting the encountering information collection in MOSNs. Implementation on smartphones also demonstrates its energy efficiency.

Reference IEEE paper :

“FaceChange: Attaining Neighbor Node Anonymity in Mobile Opportunistic Social Networks With Fine-Grained Control”, IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING, 2017.

Unique ID -SBI1055

DomainNETWORKING

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An Overlay Architecture for Throughput Optimal Multipath Routing

Introduction :

Legacy networks are often designed to operate with simple single-path routing, like the shortest path, which is known to be throughput suboptimal. On the other hand, previously proposed throughput optimal policies (i.e., backpressure) require every device in the network to make dynamic routing decisions. In this paper, we study an overlay architecture for dynamic routing, such that only a subset of devices (overlay nodes) need to make the dynamic routing decisions. We determine the essential collection of nodes that must bifurcate traffic for achieving the maximum multi-commodity network throughput. We apply our optimal node placement algorithm to several graphs and the results show that a small fraction of overlay nodes is sufficient for achieving maximum throughput. Finally, we propose a threshold-based policy (BP-T) and a heuristic policy (OBP), which dynamically control traffic bifurcations at overlay nodes. Policy BP-T is proved to maximize throughput for the case when underlay paths do no overlap. In all studied simulation scenarios, OBP not only achieves full throughput but also reduces delay in comparison to the throughput optimal backpressure routing.

Reference IEEE paper :

“An Overlay Architecture for Throughput Optimal Multipath Routing”, IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING, 2017.

UniqueID – SBI1054

DomainNETWORKING

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